161. Penalties- (1) Any person who has contravened or failed to comply with any of these rules or  any direction issued  under rule 133A shall, where no punishment is provided for such contravention in the Aircraft Act, 1934 (22 of 1934), be punishable to the extent laid down in Schedule VI of these rules.

(2) It shall be a defence to any proceedings for contravention of or failure to comply with these rules if the contravention or failure is proved to have been due to accident, stress of weather or other unavoidable cause; and it shall be a defence to any proceedings under these rules against the owner, hirer, operator, pilot or commander of an aircraft that the alleged contravention took place without his actual fault or privity.

    [Amended vide GSR  No.  167(E) dated 13-03-2009]