GOVERNMENT OF INDIA           CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS
CIVIL AVIATION DEPARTMENT     SECTION 2 - AIRWORTHINESS
                              SERIES 'X' PART IV
                              ISSUE III,DATED 25TH FEBRUARY '1986

File No. 5/841/85-AI-2        Effective : Forthwith

Subject : Use of furnishing materials in aircraft.

1.   INTRODUCTION :

     This part of Series 'X'  of Civil Airworthiness Requirements 
     prescribes   detailed   requirements  related  to   use   of 
     furnishing  materials in aircraft in its  each  compartment, 
     occupied by crew or passengers or cargo or baggage. 

2.   DEFINITION :

     "Self-extinguishing" means that when a flame is applied  for 
     a  limited  period  and removed, the  material  shall  self-
     extinguish  within  a specified time,  (for  details  please 
     refer to Appendix 'F' to F.A.R. Part 25).

     "Flame resistant" means not susceptible to combustion to the 
     point  of  propagating  a flame  after  ignition  source  is 
     removed.

3.   APPLICABILITY :

     The  requirements  are applicable to  normal  and  acrobatic 
     category  aircraft,  excepting  those  aircraft  which  have 
     fuselages either covered with wood or fabric.

4.   SCOPE :

4.1  It  is required that no furnishing material be used  in  any 
     compartment (crew, passenger, cargo or baggage) of normal or 
     aerobatic  category  aircraft in a form in  which  it  burns 
     readily.   The  materials  of  all  fittings,   furnishings, 
     upholstery,  loose  covers,  the wall,  floor  and   ceiling 
     linings or acoustic lagging, must be such as to preclude the 
     possibility  of  propagation of fire  beyond  the  immediate 
     vicinity     of    ignition    sources,     like     lighted 
     cigarettes/matches  or  electrical short  circuits.   It  is 
     further    emphasized    that   even    passenger    baggage 
     restraining/securing equipment like straps, seat belts  must 
     not contribute significantly to the propagation of fire.

4.2  For  the above stated purpose, the aircraft are  divided  in 
     the following categories :

     (i)  Normal category aircraft used for carrying  passengers, 
          goods or mails and having all up weight as 15000 Kg. or 
          above.

          Furnishing  materials used in each compartment must  be 

          "self-extinguishing"  (refer  Appendix 'F'  of  Federal 
          Aviation  Regulations  Part  25  (  of  USA)  or  other 
          approved equivalent methods).

          In addition there must be :-

           (a) Adequate number of self contained ash trays.

           (b) An  illuminated  "No  Smoking"  sign  (or   signs) 
               controllable  from  a  flight  crew  station   and 
               readable  from  each passenger seat,  to  indicate 
               when smoking is prohibited.


     (ii) Normal category aircraft other than those mentioned  in 
          preceding sub-para & aerobatic category aircraft.

          For each compartment of such aircraft :
          
          (a)  The   materials   used   for   interior    panels, 
               partitions,  carpets  and upholstery  must  be  at 
               least "Flame Resistant".

          (b)  If smoking is allowed -

              (i)   There   must  be  adequate  number  of   self 
                    contained ash trays; and

              (ii)  There  must  be an illuminated  "No  Smoking" 
                    sign  (or signs) controllable from  a  flight 
                    crew   station   and   readable   from   each 
                    passenger  seat to indicate  when smoking  is 
                    prohibited.
                         
          (c)  If  smoking is totally prohibited then instead  of 
               (b) above, there must be a placard to that effect.

4.3  Aircraft seats - resistance to fire :

     (i)   Applicability :

          This  requirement   is applicable to all  seats  except 
          seats  located  within the flight  deck,  installed  in 
          Indian registered aircraft (aeroplanes and  rotorcraft) 
          over  5700  Kg.  MTOW, certificated  in  the  Transport 
          Category  (Passenger)  of  a  type  for  which  a  Type 
          Certificate was issued on or after 1 January '1958.

     (ii) For  those aircraft defined in paragraph 1  already  in 
          service  or   to  be introduced into   service,  it  is 
          required  that  such aircraft shall  be  equipped  with 
          seats  (except seats located in the flight deck)  which 
          comply with the standard given in FAR 25, Appendix 'F', 
          Part   II  (copy  enclosed).    The  above  requirement 
          envisages  covering  of the seat cushions with  a  fire 
          blocker.

|Note : Transport Category aircraft are those aircraft which are 
|       type certificated to FAR 25/ JAR 25.
     (iii) Compliance :

     (a)  With effect from 1st November '1987 all affected  seats 
          fitted  to aircraft defined in paragraph 1 above  shall 
          comply with this requirement.

     (b)  With  effect  from 1st July '1986  all  aircraft  seats 
          newly  manufactured and which are intended for  use  on 
          aircraft defined in paragraph 1 above shall also comply 
          with this requirement.

     (c)  Each  seat  cushion (squab and  back  support),  except 
          those  fitted to seats located within the  flight  deck 
          shall  meet the requirements of FAR fire test  criteria 
          agreed with DGCA. 

5.  REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE OF FIRE RESISTANCE

     The  continuance  of the flame resisting properties  of  the 
     furnishing  material would depend upon their use in  service 
     and  the  method  used for their  cleaning.   Incorrect  dry 
     cleaning,  laundering  or  proprietary  finishing  processes 
     which enhance durability and minimise soiling may  seriously 
     destroy  or  impair  the flame  resistant  properties.  Also 
     application  of  one  flame  retardant  process  on  top  of 
     another,  of  a  different  type  may  have  the  effect  of 
     inhibiting the properties of both processes. During service, 
     seat  covers  become contaminated  with  perspiration  which 
     leaves  a deposit of body salts, etc., which may  accumulate 
     impairing the flame resistance properties of the  furnishing 
     material.  Disinfectants etc., sprayed from aerosol cans  in 
     aircraft  cabins  may effect the long term  flame  resistant 
     properties  of the furnishing materials. The  operators  and 
     maintenance organisations must have an adequate control over 
     the cleaning of the aircraft furnishing materials. Knowledge 
     of   the   material  type,  the  recommended   cleaning   or 
     proprietary finishing processes methods, the effect of  time 
     in  service  on the flame resistance properties,  the  flame 
     retardant  processes applied, if any, and the method of  re-
     application  of  such process, where this is  necessary  are 
     essential. 

     All  the operators/maintenance organisations are advised  to 
     carry out sample test of each batch of furnishing  materials 
     for  flame  resistance in accordance with FAR  25.853  after 
     every   dry  cleaning.  The  procedure  for   cleaning   and 
     subsequent testing shall be detailed in the Quality  Control 
     Manual.

6.   ADDITIONAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS :

     (i)  Each  receptacle for towels, paper or waste in  toilets 
          of  such  aircraft shall be  constructed  of  materials 
          resistant  to fire.  The receptacles shall  incorporate 
          covers  or  other provisions  for  containing  possible 
          fire, if started in the receptacle.


     (ii) Placards shall be displayed in all toilets compartments 
          at all times, stating that "Smoking is Prohibited".

     (iii) There  must  be  a  prescribed  number  of  hand  fire 
          extinguishers,    conveniently    located    in    each 
          compartment,  as required under the  Requirements  (See 
          CAR Series "I" Part II).

7.   This  supersedes  requirements contained in CAR  Series  'X' 
     Part IV, Issue I, dated 10th December, 1976.


                                          Sd/-
                                      (N. Ramesh)
                                  Director of Airworthiness 
                           for Director General of Civil Aviation
    

                                          A P P E N D I X - 'F'

                           ( Part I )

   AN ACCEPTABLE TEST PROCEDURE FOR SHOWING COMPLIANCE WITH $$  
                 33.25.853,25.855, AND 25.1359)
               

(a)  CONDITIONING :  
     
     Specimens must be conditioned to 70 degree F., plus or minus 
     5  degree, and at 50 % plus or minus 5%   relative  humidity 
     until moisture equilibrium is reached or for 24 hours.  Only 
     one specimen at a time may be removed from the  conditioning 
     environment immediately before subjecting it to the flame.

(b) SPECIMEN CONFIGURATION : 

     Except as provided for materials used in electrical wire and 
     cable  insulation  and  in small parts,  materials  must  be 
     tested  either  as a section cut from a fabricated  part  as 
     installed in the airplane or as a specimen simulating a  cut 
     section,  such as: a specimen cut from a flat sheet  of  the 
     material  or a model of the fabricated part.   The  specimen 
     may  be cut from any location in a fabricated part;  however 
     fabricated  units,  such  as sandwich  panels,  may  not  be 
     separated  for  test.  The  specimen thickness  must  be  no 
     thicker than the minimum  thickness to be qualified for  use 
     in the airplane, except that :

     (1)  Thick foam parts, such as seat cushions, must be tested 
          in 1/2 inch thickness; 

     (2)  When   showing  compliance  with   $25.853  (b-3)   for 
          materials used in small parts that must be tested,  the 
          materials  must  be  tested in no more  than  1/8  inch 
          thickness; 

     (3)  When  showing compliance with 25.1359(d) for  materials 
          used in electrical wire and cable insulation, the  wire 
          and  cable specimens must be the same size as  used  in 
          the  airplane.  In the case of fabrics, both  the  warp 
          and  fill  direction  of the weave must  be  tested  to 
          determine  the  most critical  flammability  condition.  
          When  performing the tests prescribed in paragraph  (d) 
          through (e) of (Part I of this Appendix,) the  specimen 
          must be mounted in a metal frame so that; 
          
          (i)  In  the vertical tests of paragraph (d),  the  two 
               long edges and the upper edge are held securely; 
          (ii) In  the horizontal test of paragraph (e), the  two 
               long  edges and the edge away from the  flame  are 
               held securely; 
          (iii)The  exposed  area of the specimen is at  least  2 
               inches wide and 12 inches long, unless the  actual 
               size used in the airplane is smaller; and  
          (iv) The edge to which the burner flame is applied must 
               not  consist of the finished or protected edge  of 
               the  specimen  but must be representative  of  the 
               actual  cross-section  of  the  material  or  part 
               installed  in the airplane.  When  performing  the 
               test  prescribed  in paragraph (f) of (part  I  of 
               this  securely and the exposed area of  Appendix), 
               the specimen must be  mounted in a metal frame  so 
               that  all four edges are held the specimen  is  at 
               least 2 inches by 8 inches.
               
(c)  APPARATUS  : 

     Except  as  provided  in  paragraph  (g)  (Part  I  of  this 
     Appendix) tests must be conducted in a draft- free   cabinet 
     in  accordance with Federal Test Method Standard 191  Method 
     5903  (revised Method    5902)  for  the vertical  test,  or 
     Method     5906  for  horizontal test  (available  from  the 
     General  Services Administration, Business  Service  Centre, 
     Region  3,  Seventh  & D Streets,  S.W.,  Washington,   D.C. 
     20407)  or  other  approved equivalent  methods.   Specimens 
     which  are  too  large for the cabinet  must  be  tested  in 
     similar draft-free conditions.

(d)  VERTICAL TEST : 

     In compliance with $25.853(a) and (b).} A minimum  of  three 
     specimens  must  be tested and the  results  averaged.   For 
     fabrics,  the direction of weave corresponding to  the  most 
     critical  flammability  conditions must be parallel  to  the 
     longest   dimension.   Each  specimen  must   be   supported 
     vertically.   The  specimen must be exposed to a  Bunsen  or 
     Tirrill  burner with a nominal  3/8 inch I.D. tube  adjusted 
     to  give  a flame of 1-1/2  inches in height.   The  minimum 
     flame  temperature  measured by  a  calibrated  thermocouple 
     pyrometer  in the centre of the flame must be thee   fourths 
     inch  above the  top edge of the burner.  The flame must  be 
     applied to the centerline of the lower edge of the specimen.  
     For  materials  covered by $25.853 (a), the flame   must  be 
     applied  for  60 seconds and then  removed.   For  materials 
     covered  by  $25.853(b), the flame must be  applied  for  12 
     seconds  and  then removed.  Flame time , burn  length,  and  
     flaming  time  of drippings, if any, must a  recorded.   The 
     burn length determined  in accordance with  paragraph (h) of 
     (Part  I of this Appendix) must be measured to the   nearest 
     one-tenth inch.

(e) HORIZONTAL  TEST IN COMPLIANCE WITH $ 25.853(b-2) AND (b-3) :   

     A minimum of three specimens must be tested and the  results 
     averaged.   Each  specimen must be  supported  horizontally.  
     The  exposed surface when installed in the aircraft must  be 
     face  down for the test.  The specimen must be exposed to  a 
     Bunsen burner or Tirrill burner with a nominal 3/8 inch I.D.  
     tube adjusted to give a flame of 1-1/2 inches in height.  The 
     minimum   flame   temperature  measured  by   a   calibrated 
     thermocouple  pyrometer in the centre of the flame  must  be 
     1550 degree F.  The specimen must be positioned so that  the 
     edge being tested is three fourths of an inch above the  top 
     of,  and on the centre line, the burner.  The flame must  be 
     applied  for 15 seconds and then removed.  A  minimum of  10 
     inches  of  the specimen must be used  for  timing  purpose, 
     approximately  1-  1/2  must burn before the  burning  front 
     reaches  the timing zone, and the average burn rate must  be 
     recorded.

(f)  FORTY-FIVE  DEGREE TEST  IN COMPLIANCE WITH $ 25.855 (A-1) :  

     A  minimum  of  three  specimens  must  be  tested  and  the 
     results  averaged.   The specimens must be supported  at  an 
     angle  of  45 degree to a horizontal surface.   The  exposed 
     surface when installed in the aircraft must be face down for 
     the test. See FAR  The minimum flame temperature measured by 
     a  calibrated  thermocouple pyrometer in the centre  of  the 
     flame  must be 1550 degree F.  Suitable precautions must  be 
     taken to avoid drafts.  One-third of the flame must  contact 
     the  materials  at the centre of the specimen  and  must  be 
     applied  for 30 seconds and then removed.  Flame time,  glow 
     time, and whether the flame penetrates (passes through)  the 
     specimen must be recorded.

(g) SIXTY  DEGREE TEST  IN   COMPLIANCE WITH $ 25.1359(d). :  

     A  minimum  of three specimens of  each  wire  specification 
     (make  and  size) must be tested.  The specimen of  wire  or 
     cable  (including insulation) must be placed at an angle  of 
     60  degree with the horizontal to the cabinet  specified  in 
     paragraph  (c)  Part I of this Appendix   with  the  cabinet 
     door open during the test or must be placed within a chamber 
     approximately 2 feet high x 1 foot x 1 foot, open at the top 
     and   at  one  vertical  side  (front),  and  which   allows 
     sufficient flow of air for complete combustion, but which is 
     free  from  drafts.  The specimen must be  parallel  to  and 
     approximately  6 inches from the front of the chamber.   The 
     lower  end  of the specimen must  be held  rigidly  clamped.  
     The upper end of the specimen must pass over a pulley or rod 
     and  must have an appropriate weight attached to it so  that 
     the  specimen  is held tautly  throughout  the  flammability 
     test.  The test specimen span between lower clamp and  upper 
     pulley or rod must be 24 inches and must be marked 8  inches 
     from  the lower end to indicate the central point for  flame 
     application.   A flame from a Bunsen or Tirrill burner  must 
     be applied for 30 seconds at the test mark.  The burner must 
     be  counted  underneath  the  test  mark  on  the  specimen, 
     perpendicular  to the specimen and at an angle of 30  degree 
     to the vertical plane of the specimen.  The burner must have 
     a nominal bore of 3/8 inch, and must be adjusted to  provide 
     a  3-inch high flame with an inner cone  approximately  one-
     third  of the flame height.  The minimum temperature of  the 
     hottest portion of the flame, as measured with a  calibrated 
     thermocouple pyrometer, may not be less than 1750 degree  F.  
     The burner must be positioned so that the hottest portion of 
     the  flame is applied to the test mark on the  wire.   Flame 
     time,  burn  length, and flaming time of drippings,  if  any 
     must be recorded.  The burn length determined in  accordance 
     with  paragraph (h)    Part   I of this Appendix    must  be 
     measured  to  the nearest 1/10-inch.  Breaking of  the  wire 
     specimens is not considered a failure.

(h) BURN LENGTH : 
     
     Burn  length is the distance from the original edge  to  the 
     farthest  evidence  of damage to the test  specimen  due  to 
     flame  impingement, including areas of partial  or  complete 
     consumption,  charring, or embrittlement, but not  including 
     areas  sooted,  stained, warped, or  discolored,  nor  areas 
     where  material  has  shrunk or melted away  from  the  heat 
     source.


                             PART II 

                  FLAMMABILITY OF SEAT CUSHIONS
                  _____________________________              


(a)  CRITERIA FOR ACCEPTANCE : 

     Each seat cushion must  meet the following criteria :

     (1)  At  least,  three  sets of seat bottom  and  seat  back 
          cushion specimens must be tested.

     (2)  If  the  cushion is constructed with  a  fire  blocking 
          material,  the fire blocking material  must  completely 
          enclose the cushion foam core material.

     (3)  Each  specimen  tested  must be  fabricated  using  the 
          principal   components  (i.e.  foam,  core,   flotation 
          materials,  fire blocking material, if used, and  dress 
          covering) and assembly processes (representative  seams 
          and  closures)  intended  for  use  in  the  production 
          articles.  If a different material combination is  used 
          for the back cushion than for the bottom cushion,  both 
          material  combinations  must  be  tested  as   complete 
          specimen  sets, each set consisting of a  back  cushion 
          specimen  and a bottom cushion specimen.  If a  cushion 
          including outer dress covering, is demonstrated to meet 
          the requirements of this Appendix using the oil  burner 
          test,  the  dress  covering  of  that  cushion  may  be 
          replaced  with  a similar dress covering  provided  the 
          burn length of the replacement covering, as  determined 
          by the test specified in   $25.853(b), does not  exceed 
          the  corresponding  burn length of the  dress  covering 
          used on the cushion subjected to the oil burner test.

    (4)   For at least two-thirds of the total number of specimen 
          sets  tested, the burn length from the burner must  not 
          reach the side of the cushion opposite the burner.  The 
          burn length must not exceed 17 inches.  Burn length  is 
          the perpendicular distance from the inside edge of  the 
          seat  frame  closest  to the  burner  to  the  farthest 
          evidence  of damage to the test specimen due  to  flame 
          impingement,  including  areas of partial  or  complete 
          consumption,  charring,   or   embrittlement,  but  not 
          including areas sooted, stained, warped, or discolored, 
          or areas where material has shrunk or melted away  from 
          the heat source.

     (5)  The  average percentage weight loss must not exceed  10 
          percent.  Also, at least two-thirds of the total number 
          of  specimen  sets tested must not  exceed  10  percent 
          weight loss all droppings falling from the cushion  and 
          mounting  stand are to be discarded before  the  after-
          test weight is determined.  The percentage weight  loss 
          for  a specimen set is the weight of the  specimen  set 
          before  testing  less the weight of  the  specimen  set 
          after testing expressed as the percentage of the weight 
          before testing.

(b)  TEST CONDITIONS :

     Vertical  air velocity should average 25 fpm  plus minus  10 
     fpm  at  the top of the back seat cushion.   Horizontal  air 
     velocity  should be below 10 fpm just above the bottom  seat 
     cushion.   Air  velocities  should  be  measured  with   the 
     ventilation hood operating and the burner motor off.

 (c) TEST SPECIMENS :

     (1)  For   each   test,  one  set   of   cushion   specimens 
          representing  a  seat  bottom  and  seat  back  cushion             
          specimen must be used.
 
     (2)  The seat bottom cushion specimen must be 18  plus minus 
          1/8  inches  (457 plus  minus  3 mm) wide  by  20   1/8 
          inches  (508 plus minus 3 mm) deep by 4 plus minus  1/8 
          inches  (102 plus minus 3 mm) thick,  exclusive  fabric 
          closures and seam overlap.

     (3)  The  seat back cushion specimen must be 18  plus  minus 
          1/8 inches (432 plus minus 3 mm) wide by 25 plus  minus  
          1/8  inches (635 plus minus 3 mm) high by 2 plus  minus 
          1/8  inches  (51 plus minus 3 mm) thick,  exclusive  of 
          fabric closures and seam overlap.

     (4)  The specimens must be conditioned  at 70 plus  minus  5 
          deg.  F  (21 plus minus 2 deg.C.) 55%  plus  minus  10%  
          relative humidity for at least 24 hours before testing.

(d) TEST APPARATUS :  
               
     The arrangement of the test apparatus is shown in Figures  1 
     through 5 and must include the components described in  this 
     section.  Minor details of the apparatus may vary, depending 
     on the model of burner used.

     (1) SPECIMEN  MOUNTING STAND :  
          
          The  mounting stand for the test specimens consists  of 
          steel angles, as shown in Figure 1.  The length of  the 
          mounting  stand legs is 12 plus minus 1/8  inches  (305 
          plus minus  3 mm).  The mounting stand must be used for 
          mounting  the test specimen seat bottom and seat  back, 
          as  shown in figure 2.  The mounting stand should  also 
          include a suitable drip pan lined with aluminium  foil, 
          dull side up.

     (2) TEST BURNER : The burner to be used in testing must :-

          (i)   Be modified gun type;

          (ii) Have  an  80 degree spray angle  nozzle  nominally 
               rated for 2.25 gallons/hour at 100 psi.

          (iii)Have  a 12 inch (305 mm) burner cone installed  at 
               the  end  of  the draft tube, with  an  opening  6 
               inches (152 mm) high and 11 inches (280 mm)  wide, 
               as shown in Figure 3; and

          (iv) Have  a  burner fuel pressure  regulator  that  is 
               adjusted to deliver a nominal 2.0 gallon/hour of # 
               2  Grade kerosene or equivalent required  for  the 
               test.

     Burner  models which have been used successfully in  testing 
     are  the Lennox Model OB-32, Carlin Model 200 CRD, and  Park 
     Model  DPL  3400.  FAA published reports pertinent  to  this 
     type  of burner are: (1) Power plant Engineering Report  No. 
     3A, Standard Fire Test Apparatus and Procedure for  Flexible 
     Hose  Assemblies,  dated March 1978; and  (2)   Report   No. 
     DOT/FAA/RD/76/213,  Reevaluation of  Burner  Characteristics 
     for Fire Resistance Tests, dated January, 1977.

     (3)  CALORIMETER  :

        (i)    The  calorimeter to be used in testing must  be  a 
               (0-15.0  BTU/ft -sec.  0-17.0 w/cm )  calorimeter, 
               accurate plus  minus  3%,   mounted in a 6 inch by 
               12 inch (152 by 305 mm) by 3/4 inch (19 mm)  thick 
               calcium   silicate  insulating  board   which   is 
               attached to a steel angle bracket for placement in 
               the test stand during burner calibration, as shown 
               in Figure 4.

        (ii)   Because  crumbling  of the insulating  board  with 
               service   can  result  in  misalignment   of   the 
               calorimeter, the calorimeter must be monitored and 
               the mounting shimmed, as necessary, to ensure that 
               the  calorimeter  face is flush with  the  exposed 
               plane of the insulating board in a plane  parallel 
               to the exit of the test burner cone.

     (4)  THERMOCOUPLES :

          The seven thermocouples to be used for testing must  be 
          1/16  to 1/8 inch metal and sheathed,  ceramic  packed, 
          type K, grounded thermocouples with a nominal 22 to  30  
          American  wire  gage (AWG) size conductor.   The  seven 
          thermocouples must be attached to a steel angle bracket 
          to  form a thermocouple rake for placement in the  test 
          stand during burner calibration, as shown in Figure 5.

     (5) APPARATUS ARRANGEMENT  : 

          The test burner must be mounted on a suitable stand  to 
          position  the exit of the burner cone a distance  of  4 
          plus   minus 1/8 inches (102 plus minus 3 mm) from  one 
          side of the specimen mounting stand.  The burner  stand 
          should have the capability of allowing the burner to be 
          swung  away  from the specimen  mounting  stand  during 
          warmup periods.

     (6)  DATA RECORDING :  

          A recording potentiometer  or other suitable calibrated 
          in